Architectured Materials

The Architectured Materials Group aims at developing novel materials that fill desirable white spaces in the Ashby diagrams. We investigate fundamental processes of small scale plasticity under extreme conditions and multiscale toughening mechanisms in complex hierarchical materials. We translate this knowledge into the design of novel metamaterials with hierarchical architecture and tailored microstructure that allow us to combine usually mutually exclusive properties, e.g. high strength and toughness with a low density. To achieve this, we actively develop nanomechanical instruments and methods and closely integrate experimental and modeling approaches.
/documents/55912/2384631/Figure1.jpg/7ad23b13-cb58-4a50-b424-c5e4a312b3a0?t=1619449527267

Fundamental processes of plasticity and failure in microscale components

A potential pathway towards high specific strength materials is to make use of both extrinsic and intrinsic size effects in the design of mechanical metamaterials. We investigate the rate limiting plastic processes at the nanoscale and the effect of grain and component size on the mechanical behaviour through a combination of thermal activation analysis at low temperatures and high strain rates, microstructural analysis, and computational modeling. A thorough understanding of the fundamental deformation mechanisms enables us to find pathways for influencing the mechanical behavior of the material through microstructural design. To achieve this, we push the limits of what can be measured at the microscale today through active instrument and method development, e.g. for mode-dependent fracture, tensile, cryogenic temperature, or high strain rate experiments. (Materials & Design 2020, JMR 2019, Nano Letters 2019, FFEMS 2018)
/documents/55912/2384631/Figure2.jpg/526238d7-fd3a-4c31-9f7a-1da49778a9fa?t=1619449575380
Microtensile experiments as a function of strain rate on specimens prepared by 2 photon lithography (Materials & Design 2020)

Multiscale failure of hierarchical materials

Furthermore, we study the failure of complex materials such as hierarchical biological nanocomposites (e.g. bone, wood, teeth) or nanostructured thin films to identify how these materials manage to combine toughness and strength with a light weight through multiscale toughening mechanisms. We assess the influence of their complex microstructure, i.e. the role of interfaces, defects, and material inhomogeneity, on their macroscopic failure. Combining challenging mechanical experiments, microstructural analysis, and mechanical modeling spanning from the nano- to the macroscale allows us to investigate and model the underlying physical processes in these materials at the relevant length scales. (Acta Biomaterialia 2020, Acta Biomaterialia 2017, Nature Materials 2014)

/documents/55912/2384631/Figure3.jpg/96f17d55-514b-4840-b438-b19ae5095417?t=1619449615143
Study on the deformation and failure mechanisms in lamellar bone through combination of micropillar compression, TEM imaging, and micromechanical modeling (Acta Biomaterialia 2017)

Design, synthesis, and characterization of hierarchical metamaterials

Based on the gained knowledge on fundamental processes at the nanoscale and multiscale toughening mechanisms, we develop novel materials that feature advantageous combinations of properties such as a high specific strength and toughness through simulation-assisted design. This is achieved by making use of size effects, microstructural design, and hierarchical architecture through a combination of microscale additive manufacturing techniques like two photon lithography, electrodeposition, and atomic layer deposition, to prepare materials that are light, strong and damage resistant and fill desirable white spaces in the Ashby diagrams. (Materials & Design 2020)
/documents/55912/2384631/Figure5.jpg/5867dbde-d061-4610-98d4-fa962360a26e?t=1619449695217
Nanotomography of a gyroid structure synthesized by combination of 2-photon lithography, elektrodeposition, and atomic layer deposition

Projects:

Assessing bone quality using a multidisciplinary approach

/documents/55912/2384631/Figure4.jpg/43a88faa-4995-4aa1-8518-931eaa24930d?t=1619449652310

In this project funded by the Special Focus Area Personalized Health and Related Technologies of the ETH domain, we aim to apply high throughput microscale analysis methods to help solve clinical prob-lems in bone biomechanics with a societal impact. The rising number of bone fractures poses a chal-lenge to ageing societies worldwide. A large portion of physiological loading is carried by cortical bone which motivates the need to understand its structure-property relationships at several length scales. Together with our partners at the University of Bern and the Inselspital, we investigate whether micromechanical measurements may be combined with compositional, morphological, and proteome information to predict macroscopic bone strength in a donor- and site-matched manner. This research has the potential to help form a better understanding of the mechanisms of ageing and disease in bone and may lead to an improved personalized fracture risk prediction in the future. (Acta Biomateri-alia 2021, Bone 2016)

Efficient development of compositionally complex coatings

/documents/55912/2384631/Figure6.jpg/437b29a1-3d72-4bfb-9c05-a99f4c62dc83?t=1619449731670
The EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation action project FORGE objective is to develop a set of cost-effective highly protective coatings, based on novel Compositionally Complex Materials (CCMs) to provide the required hardness, chemical stability and gas barrier properties for challenging industrial applications. As part of the consortium, we utilize high throughput processes for efficient material dis-covery based on thin film combinatorial material libraries. These are synthesized by physical vapor deposition and analyzed in terms of their composition, microstructure, and mechanical performance under various boundary conditions to identify process-composition-structure-property relationships. This allows the effective screening of material libraries to identify materials of interest for specific appli-cations like improved chemical or wear resistance.

Microscale 3D printing by local electrodeposition

/documents/55912/2384631/Figure+7.jpg/e10d1dd3-55dd-40c5-8190-2ad3769b8863?t=1649224964667
The aim of the Innosuisse innovation project NIPRINT (3D Microprinting of Nickel) is to develop a pro-cess that allows printing of microscale nickel components by local electrodeposition, using the CERES µAM print system manufactured by Exaddon AG (Zürich, Switzerland). The project includes bath chemis-try optimization, hardware and software development, as well as deposit characterization. Microstruc-tures deposited at different printing parameters are characterized using different analytical techniques, such as SEM, EDX, XRD, EBSD and TEM, while the mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus, strength, ductility and creep behavior, are investigated by micromechanical testing at extreme condi-tions.

In situ high-speed nanomechanical testing inside the scanning electron microscope

/documents/55912/2384631/Figure8.jpg/f570f357-0f3a-4816-a59f-23713b1cf621?t=1648460062050
HINT (High-speed in situ nanomechanical tester) is a project financed by the Eureka Eurostars funding scheme and a collaborative effort of four project partners from academia and industry. Empa (Thun, Switzerland), the Max Planck Institute for Iron Research (Düsseldorf, Germany), point electronic GmbH (Halle, Germany) and Alemnis AG (Thun, Switzerland) are working together with the aim of developing a novel stand alone in situ device that combines high-resolution nanomechanical testing with high-speed imaging. These features will be coupled with nanoscale characterisation at extreme conditions including strain rates of up to 1000 s-1. The new device will allow the dynamic in situ study of structural changes of samples at the nanometre length scale during mechanical testing. The new insights will give invaluable feedback on small scale structures and the optimisation of their architecture and design.

Developing mechanically tunable optical metamaterials

/documents/55912/2384631/Figure9.jpg/47a5fe0b-eafd-4e8c-90b8-a2494a19be4b?t=1655455991362

The focus of the project MetaQD is to lay the foundations for infrared nanostructured metamaterials-based detectors that combine nano-elements using directed self-assembly, with the goal of developing advanced photonic devices with improved optical performance that are mechanically tuneable for add-ed functionality for sensing applications. Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) have emerged as promising na-nomaterials for broadband detection as their sensitivity depends on size and can be tuned from visible to mid-infrared (MIR) range. However, their absorption cross-section is quite low, thus limiting their po-tential. A possible solution are optical resonant nanostructures: squeezing light into small mode vol-umes enhances light-matter interactions dramatically. Nanostructured metamaterials can be used to enhance light absorption in QDs resulting in responsivity up to 5 μm within the midwave infrared win-dow, where disturbance from atmospheric influence can be avoided. This has the potential to increase device sensitivity and adds functionality allowing sustainable research. The proposed project will lay the foundation for the development of next generation nano-opto-mechanical devices for various applica-tions.


Team members

Recent publications:

Team members:


 
Last Name
Schwiedrzik
Johann Jakob Schwiedrzik
First Name
Johann Jakob
Professional expertise
Group leader Architectured Materials. My research focuses on the design, synthesis, and multiscale analysis of architectured and hierarchical materials through combined experimental and modeling approaches. I investigate fundamental processes of plasticity and fracture at small scales under extreme conditions, e.g. cryogenic temperature and high strain rate, as well as multiscale failure and toughening mechanisms in hierarchical materials. This knowledge is translated into the simulation-guided design, synthesis, and characterization of microscale metamaterials with tunable material properties and added functionality.

 
Last Name
Groetsch
Alexander Groetsch
First Name
Alexander
Phone

 
Last Name
Tian
Chunhua Tian
First Name
Chunhua
Phone

 
Last Name
Watroba
Maria Anna Watroba
First Name
Maria Anna
Professional expertise
Carrying out materials characterization and testing using SEM-EBSD methods, macro and micromechani-cal testing, high-speed nanoindentation, X-ray diffraction. Developing novel bioresorbable metallic mate-rials for potential biomedical applications using plastic deformation processes, combinatorial thin film deposition techniques, and template-assisted electrodeposition for synthesizing 3D porous structures.

 
Last Name
Xomalis
Angelos Xomalis
First Name
Angelos
Phone

 
Last Name
Kochetkova
Tatiana Kochetkova
First Name
Tatiana
Professional expertise
With a scientific background in Fundamental Physics and Experimental Biophysics, I'm carrying out my PhD research in an interdisciplinary project aiming at investigating tissue-scale factors other than BMD influencing bone fracture risk. To reach this goal, I combine micromechanical testing, X-ray computed tomography, Raman spectroscopy, and proteomics for quantification of what is commonly referred to as bone quality.

 
Last Name
Peruzzi
Cinzia Peruzzi
First Name
Cinzia
Phone

Recent publications:

Ramachandramoorthy, R.; Kalácska, S.; Poras, G.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Edwards, T. E. J.; Maeder, X.; Merle, T.; Ercolano, G.; Koelmans, W. W.; Michler, J. Anomalous high strain rate compressive behavior of additively manufactured copper micropillars. Appl. Mater. Today 2022, 27, 101415 (11 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmt.2022.101415
Detailed Record
Schwiedrzik, J.; Ramachandramoorthy, R.; Edwards, T. E. J.; Schürch, P.; Casari, D.; Duarte, M. J.; Mohanty, G.; Dehm, G.; Maeder, X.; Philippe, L.; et al. Dynamic cryo-mechanical properties of additively manufactured nanocrystalline nickel 3D microarchitectures. Mater. Des. 2022, 220, 110836 (14 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110836
Detailed Record
Widmer, R. N.; Groetsch, A.; Kermouche, G.; Diaz, A.; Pillonel, G.; Jain, M.; Ramachandramoorthy, R.; Pethö, L.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Michler, J. Temperature-dependent dynamic plasticity of micro-scale fused silica. Mater. Des. 2022, 215, 110503 (11 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110503
Detailed Record
Casari, D.; Kochetkova, T.; Michler, J.; Zysset, P.; Schwiedrzik, J. Microtensile failure mechanisms in lamellar bone: influence of fibrillar orientation, specimen size and hydration. Acta Biomater. 2021, 131, 391-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.06.032
Detailed Record
Casari, D.; Michler, J.; Zysset, P.; Schwiedrzik, J. Microtensile properties and failure mechanisms of cortical bone at the lamellar level. Acta Biomater. 2021, 120, 135-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.04.030
Detailed Record
Indermaur, M.; Casari, D.; Kochetkova, T.; Peruzzi, C.; Zimmermann, E.; Rauch, F.; Willie, B.; Michler, J.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Zysset, P. Compressive strength of iliac bone ECM is not reduced in osteogenesis imperfecta and increases with mineralization. J. Bone Miner. Res. 2021, 36 (7), 1364-1375. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4286
Detailed Record
Kochetkova, T.; Peruzzi, C.; Braun, O.; Overbeck, J.; Maurya, A. K.; Neels, A.; Calame, M.; Michler, J.; Zysset, P.; Schwiedrzik, J. Combining polarized Raman spectroscopy and micropillar compression to study microscale structure-property relationships in mineralized tissues. Acta Biomater. 2021, 119, 390-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.10.034
Detailed Record
Maurya, A. K.; Parrilli, A.; Kochetkova, T.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Dommann, A.; Neels, A. Multiscale and multimodal X-ray analysis: quantifying phase orientation and morphology of mineralized turkey leg tendons. Acta Biomater. 2021, 129, 169-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.05.022
Detailed Record
Peruzzi, C.; Ramachandramoorthy, R.; Groetsch, A.; Casari, D.; Grönquist, P.; Rüggeberg, M.; Michler, J.; Schwiedrzik, J. Microscale compressive behavior of hydrated lamellar bone at high strain rates. Acta Biomater. 2021, 131, 403-414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.07.005
Detailed Record
Ramachandramoorthy, R.; Yang, F.; Casari, D.; Stolpe, M.; Jain, M.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Michler, J.; Kruzic, J. J.; Best, J. P. High strain rate in situ micropillar compression of a Zr-based metallic glass. J. Mater. Res. 2021, 36 (11), 2325-2336. https://doi.org/10.1557/s43578-021-00187-5
Detailed Record
Widmer, R. N.; Bischof, D.; Jurczyk, J.; Michler, M.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Michler, J. Smooth or not: robust fused silica micro-components by femtosecond-laser-assisted etching. Mater. Des. 2021, 204, 109670 (9 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2021.109670
Detailed Record
Ast, J.; Schwiedrzik, J. J.; Rohbeck, N.; Maeder, X.; Michler, J. Novel micro-scale specimens for mode-dependent fracture testing of brittle materials: a case study on GaAs single crystals. Mater. Des. 2020, 193, 108765 (11 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108765
Detailed Record
Manzano, C. V.; Schwiedrzik, J. J.; Bürki, G.; Pethö, L.; Michler, J.; Philippe, L. A set of empirical equations describing the observed colours of metal-anodic aluminium oxide-Al nanostructures. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2020, 11, 798-806. https://doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.11.64
Detailed Record
Rohbeck, N.; Ramachandramoorthy, R.; Casari, D.; Schürch, P.; Edwards, T. E. J.; Schilinsky, L.; Philippe, L.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Michler, J. Effect of high strain rates and temperature on the micromechanical properties of 3D-printed polymer structures made by two-photon lithography. Mater. Des. 2020, 195, 108977 (9 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108977
Detailed Record
Speed, A.; Groetsch, A.; Schwiedrzik, J. J.; Wolfram, U. Extrafibrillar matrix yield stress and failure envelopes for mineralised collagen fibril arrays. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 2020, 105, 103563 (14 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103563
Detailed Record
Xie, T.; Edwards, T. E. J.; della Ventura, N. M.; Casari, D.; Huszár, E.; Fu, L.; Zhou, L.; Maeder, X.; Schwiedrzik, J. J.; Utke, I.; et al. Synthesis of model Al-Al2O3 multilayer systems with monolayer oxide thickness control by circumventing native oxidation. Thin Solid Films 2020, 711, 138287 (8 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2020.138287
Detailed Record
Casari, D.; Pethö, L.; Schürch, P.; Maeder, X.; Philippe, L.; Michler, J.; Zysset, P.; Schwiedrzik, J. A self-aligning microtensile setup: application to single-crystal GaAs microscale tension–compression asymmetry. J. Mater. Res. 2019, 34 (14), 2517-2534. https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2019.183
Detailed Record
Conte, M.; Mohanty, G.; Schwiedrzik, J. J.; Wheeler, J. M.; Bellaton, B.; Michler, J.; Randall, N. X. Novel high temperature vacuum nanoindentation system with active surface referencing and non-contact heating for measurements up to 800 °C. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2019, 90 (4), 045105 (12 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5029873
Detailed Record
Groetsch, A.; Gourrier, A.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Sztucki, M.; Beck, R. J.; Shephard, J. D.; Michler, J.; Zysset, P. K.; Wolfram, U. Compressive behaviour of uniaxially aligned individual mineralised collagen fibres at the micro- and nanoscale. Acta Biomater. 2019, 89, 313-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.053
Detailed Record
Ramachandramoorthy, R.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Petho, L.; Guerra-Nuñez, C.; Frey, D.; Breguet, J. M.; Michler, J. Dynamic plasticity and failure of microscale glass: rate-dependent ductile–brittle–ductile transition. Nano Lett. 2019, 19 (4), 2350-2359. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b05024
Detailed Record
Shi, Y.; Fluri, A.; Garbayo, I.; Schwiedrzik, J. J.; Michler, J.; Pergolesi, D.; Lippert, T.; Rupp, J. L. M. Zigzag or spiral-shaped nanostructures improve mechanical stability in yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes for micro-energy conversion devices. Nano Energy 2019, 59, 674-682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2019.03.017
Detailed Record
Spiesz, E. M.; Schmieden, D. T.; Grande, A. M.; Liang, K.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Natalio, F.; Michler, J.; Garcia, S. J.; Aubin-Tam, M. E.; Meyer, A. S. Bacterially produced, nacre-inspired composite materials. Small 2019, 15 (22), 1805312 (6 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805312
Detailed Record
Thomas, K.; Mohanty, G.; Wehrs, J.; Taylor, A. A.; Pathak, S.; Casari, D.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Mara, N.; Spolenak, R.; Michler, J. Elevated and cryogenic temperature micropillar compression of magnesium–niobium multilayer films. J. Mater. Sci. 2019, 54 (15), 10884-10901. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-019-03422-x
Detailed Record
Ast, J.; Schwiedrzik, J. J.; Wehrs, J.; Frey, D.; Polyakov, M. N.; Michler, J.; Maeder, X. The brittle-ductile transition of tungsten single crystals at the micro-scale. Mater. Des. 2018, 152, 168-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2018.04.009
Detailed Record
Guillonneau, G.; Mieszala, M.; Wehrs, J.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Grop, S.; Frey, D.; Philippe, L.; Breguet, J. M.; Michler, J.; Wheeler, J. M. Nanomechanical testing at high strain rates: new instrumentation for nanoindentation and microcompression. Mater. Des. 2018, 148, 39-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2018.03.050
Detailed Record
Schwiedrzik, J. J.; Ast, J.; Pethö, L.; Maeder, X.; Michler, J. A new push-pull sample design for microscale mode 1 fracture toughness measurements under uniaxial tension. Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct. 2018, 41 (5), 991-1001. https://doi.org/10.1111/ffe.12741
Detailed Record
Schürch, P.; Pethö, L.; Schwiedrzik, J.; Michler, J.; Philippe, L. Additive manufacturing through galvanoforming of 3D nickel microarchitectures: simulation-assisted synthesis. Adv. Mater. Technol. 2018, 3 (12), 1800274 (8 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1002/admt.201800274
Detailed Record