The main activities of the Group for Climate Gases are centered around the observations of anthropogenic trace gases in the atmosphere. Data are exploited for detection of sources and sinks of these gases as well as trends and their influence on atmospheric chemistry.
Trace Gas Measurements at Jungfraujoch
CLIMGAS-CH / AGAGE: Continuous measurements of halogenated greenhouse gases at the high Alpine site of Jungfraujoch for identification of trends and regional European emissions.
CO2, CH4, N2O and CO: The important greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon monoxide (CO) are also continuously measured at Jungfraujoch.
Advancement Analytical Techniques
Innovation in Halocarbon Measurements and Emission Validation
Measurements of VOCs in Switzerland
Empa has measured VOCs as part of the Swiss network on air pollution (NABEL) since the 1990s at several locations in Switzerland, ranging from high-Alpine sites to urban hotspots. More explanations on Swiss VOC measurements and data availability can be found here.
These measurements are part of the European RI-URBANS project, the European EMEP system and of the European ACTRIS infrastructure network. In ACTRIS Empa is responsible for data quality checks of VOCs as part of the Topical Center for in-situ trace gases (CiGAS). For this we have developed an automatic quality check tool (@VOC@). @VOC@ ist freely available.
• Rust, D.; Katharopoulos, I.; Vollmer, M. K.; Henne, S.; O'Doherty, S.; Say, D.; Emmenegger, L.; Zenobi, R.; Reimann, S. Swiss halocarbon emissions for 2019 to 2020 assessed from regional atmospheric observations. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2022, 22 (4), 2447-2466. doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-2447-2022
• Western, L. M.; Redington, A. L.; Manning, A. J.; Trudinger, C. M.; Hu, L.; Henne, S.; Fang, X.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.; Theodoridi, C.; Godwin, D. S.; et al. A renewed rise in global HCFC-141b emissions between 2017-2021. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2022, 22 (14), 9601-9616. doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-9601-2022
• Yu, D.; Deng, L.; Yao, B.; Vollmer, M. K.; Chen, L.; Li, Y.; Xu, H.; O'Doherty, S.; Song, Q.; Ning, S. Atmospheric mixing ratios and emissions of sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) in China. Atmos. Res. 2022, 275, 106222 (8 pp.). doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2022.106222
• Lickley, M. J.; Daniel, J. S.; Fleming, E. L.; Reimann, S.; Solomon, S. Bayesian assessment of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and halon banks suggest large reservoirs still present in old equipment. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2022, 22 (17), 11125-11136. doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-11125-2022
• Chipperfield, M. P.; Hegglin, M. I.; Montzka, S. A.; Newman, P. A.; Park, S.; Reimann, S.; Rigby, M.; Stohl, A.; Velders, G. J. M.; Walter-Terrinoni, H.; et al. Report on the unexpected emissions of CFC-11. A report of the scientific assessment panel of the Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer; WMO; Report No.: 1268; World Meteorological Organization (WMO): Geneva, 2021; 70 p. library.wmo.int/doc_num.php?explnum_id=10748
HIGHGAS: Development of traceable standards with long-term stability for high impact greenhouse gases.
MEDEMPA: Building of the Medusas for Norway and China.
LEMURE: The LEMURE project will advance methods to obtain reliable and independent emission numbers of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, which can be used to check emissions to be reported by the signatory countries within the Kyoto Protocol.
SOGE: To develop a new cost-effective long-term European observation system for halocarbons.
Mehal-GG: First-time top down estimation of halocarbon emissions for Southeastern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula, based on atmospheric measurement campaigns in Finokalía (Crete, Greece) and Pic du Midi (Pyrenees, France).
ENOVO: Campaign measurements of oxidised volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) at Zürich (urban) and Jungfraujoch (high Alpine, background).
SASHA-THT: The PhD thesis “Sources and Sinks of Hydrogen in the Atmosphere during Transition to Hydrogen-based Transportation” commenced in the summer of 2007.