CLIMGAS-CH / AGAGE Measurements of halogenated greenhouse gases at Jungfraujoch

Halogenated greenhouse gases (CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and HFOs) are measured continuously at the Alpine station of Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl.) in Switzerland. Together with meteorological transport models these data are used to estimate European emissions down to a regional scale.

Since 2000 more than 50 ozone-depletion and greenhouse gases have been continuously measured at Jungfraujoch within the Swiss national HALCLIM project under the management of Empa and FOEN (Swiss Federal Office for the Environment). Since 2018 in the CLIMGAS-CH project, commonly managed by Empa and FOEN, all non-CO2 greenhouse gases (halocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide) are analyses and their regional emissions are estimated. This activity is also contributing the  AGAGE network with the common measurement technique of GCMS (gas chromatograph – mass spectrometer).


CLIMGAS-CH (2018-2022) / HALCLIM (2000-2018)

  • Assessing Swiss and regional European emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and contributing to the control of the national emission inventory.
  • Locating sources and dominant source regions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, using atmospheric transport models.


  • Montinoring the composition of the global atmosphere for Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol trace gases


HFC-134a and HFC-125 at Jungfraujoch
Long-term continuous measurements of different halocarbons can be used to identify global and regional emissions. For example, HFC-134a is used in great quantities as cooling agent (e.g. in mobile air conditioners). HFC-125 is used in stationary cooling blends. Concentrations of both gases are currently rising.
Source allocation
European sources of the anthropogenic HFC-134a, HFC-125 and HFC-152a as seen from Jungfraujoch.
By combining measurements with atmospheric transport models, specific European source regions can be identified and their emissions can be monitored over time.
Analytical techniques at Jungfraujoch
Medusa with GCMS
Between 2000 - 2008 halocarbons at Jungfraujoch were measured by ADS GCMS. In 2008 this system was replaced by a new Medusa pre-concentration unit coupled to a GC-quadrupole MS. This new system allows for faster (hourly measurements) and more precise measurements of a larger suite of halogenated compounds, e.g. also including the extremely long-lived tetrafluoromethane (CF4).


The Medusa system is currently set up to measure the following compounds:

  • CFCs: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115.
  • HCFCs: HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-124
  • Halons H-1301, H-1211, H-2402
  • CH3Cl, CH3Br, CHCl3, CH3CCl3, CCl4, TCE, PCE
  • HFCs: HFC-23, HFC-32, HFC-134a, HFC-152a, HFC-125, HFC-143a, HFC-227ea, HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, HFC-236fa.
  • HFOs: HFO-1234yf, HFO-1234ze(E), HCFO-1233zd(E)
  • PFC and other fluorinated compounds: PFC-116, PFC-218, PFC-318, SF6, CF4, (SF5CF3)
  • Hydorcarbons: C2 – C6 hydrocarbons
  • Carbonyl sulfide (OCS), SO2F2
  • and more ….

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