Master thesis topics
1. Exposure modeling of microplastics in the environment
Plastics are one of the most important materials of our time and the way we live would not be possible without them. Because plastics are not biodegradable, they are stable in the environment once they have been released and are only moved around by flow processes and are broken into smaller and smaller pieces. The large plastic litter only represents the visible part of the problem. Of equal importance are so-called microplastics, small pieces of broken-down plastic in the mm to sub-mm range that have first been identified in the oceans.
It is the aim in this project to connect the available measurements in the environment with information on regional plastic flows. A material flow model will be developed for plastics in Switzerland with special emphasis on the release to the environment. The basis for the model will be consumption and use data for various plastics and the identification of the flows during use and disposal. The project will focus on polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and PET, which are the main plastics detected in freshwater environments.
2. Microplastics release from textiles and other products
The occurrence of microplastics, small plastic pieces less than a few mm, in natural systems such as soils and sediments is currently a topic that receives a lot of attention. Very little is known about actual sources of microplastics. The aim of this work is to investigate one possible source, the release of microplastics from textiles during washing. In this work a systematic approach will be used to understand the processes that result in release of microplastics from various fabric and polymer types. The results of this work will be very useful to quantify the contribution of washing to the microplastics load in wastewater.
3. Exposure and risk modeling of nanomaterials in the environment
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are already contained in many products and high growth rates are expected in the next years. During various stages of the life cycle of a product ENM can be released into the environment, e.g. during production, use, recycling or disposal. In order to conduct a realistic environmental risk assesment of ENM, we have to know the expected concentrations in environmental compartments such as water, soil and sediments. These concentrations can then be compared to ecotoxicological limits.
The aim of this work is:
- to model the concentrations and the effects of ENM in the environment based on a life-cycle perspective
- to evaluate the ecotoxicological literature
- to perform an environmental risk assessment for nanoimaterials.
Risk modeling of nanomaterials is a core topoic of the ERAM group. Topics for a specific master thesis can be in one or all of these three points, depending on the interest of the student and the state of the projects where the thesis will be embedded in.