Heat transfer characteristics of urea-water spray impingement on hot surfaces. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Liao, Y., Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, P., Furrer, R., Wang, M., & Boulouchos, K.;
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer; Volume 117, February 2018, Pages 447-457
Measurements show that the instantaneous plate temperature determines the heat transferred during the spray impingement. Based on the plate temperature, different regimes (film boiling, transition boiling and nucleate boiling) have been identified. At high plate temperatures, film boiling and Leidenfrost effect are prevailing and the heat transferred from the plate to the liquid is low. With decreasing plate temperatures, the critical heat flux regime is approached and the heat transferred increases substantially. At lower plate temperatures, nucleate boiling occurs limiting the heat transferred to low values. The critical heat flux and temperature found for UWS are reported and in good agreement with the trend in previous studies for water.