Dismantling the “red wall” of colloidal perovskites: highly luminescent formamidinium and formamidinium–cesium lead iodide nanocrystals.
Protesescu, L., Yakunin, S., Kumar, S., Bär, J., Bertolotti, F., Masciocchi, N., Guagliardi, A., Grotevent, M., Shorubalko, I., Bodnarchuk, M. I., Shih, C.-J., Kovalenko, M. V.
ACS Nano, 11(3), 3119-3134., 2017
Colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) of APbX3-type lead halide perovskites [A = Cs+, CH3NH3+ (methylammonium or MA+) or CH(NH2)2+ (formamidinium or FA+); X = Cl–, Br–, I–] have recently emerged as highly versatile photonic sources for applications ranging from simple photoluminescence down-conversion (e.g., for display backlighting) to light-emitting diodes. From the perspective of spectral coverage, a formidable challenge facing the use of these materials is how to obtain stable emissions in the red and infrared spectral regions covered by the iodide-based compositions. So far, red-emissive CsPbI3 NCs have been shown to suffer from a delayed phase transformation into a nonluminescent, wide-band-gap 1D polymorph, and MAPbI3 exhibits very limited chemical durability. In this work, we report a facile colloidal synthesis method for obtaining FAPbI3 and FA-doped CsPbI3 NCs that are uniform in size (10–15 nm) and nearly cubic in shape and exhibit drastically higher robustness than their MA- or Cs-only cousins with similar sizes and morphologies. Detailed structural analysis indicated that the FAPbI3 NCs had a cubic crystal structure, while the FA0.1Cs0.9PbI3 NCs had a 3D orthorhombic structure that was isostructural to the structure of CsPbBr3 NCs. Bright photoluminescence (PL) with high quantum yield (QY > 70%) spanning red (690 nm, FA0.1Cs0.9PbI3 NCs) and near-infrared (near-IR, ca. 780 nm, FAPbI3 NCs) regions was sustained for several months or more in both the colloidal state and in films. The peak PL wavelengths can be fine-tuned by using postsynthetic cation- and anion-exchange reactions. Amplified spontaneous emissions with low thresholds of 28 and 7.5 μJ cm–2 were obtained from the films deposited from FA0.1Cs0.9PbI3 and FAPbI3 NCs, respectively. Furthermore, light-emitting diodes with a high external quantum efficiency of 2.3% were obtained by using FAPbI3 NCs.